Facts Relative to the Expulsion
Among those slain I will mention Sardius Smith, son of Warren Smith, about 9 years old, who, through fear, had crawled under the bellows in the shop, where he remained till the massacre was over, when he was discovered by a Mr. Glaze of Carroll County, who presented his rifle near the boy’s head and literally blew off the upper part of it. Mr. Stanley of Carroll told me afterward that Glaze boasted of this fiendlike murder and heroic deed all over the country.
The number killed and mortally wounded in this wanton slaughter was 18 or 19, whose names, as far as I recollect, were as follows: Thomas McBride, Levi Merrick, Elias Benner, Josiah Fuller, Benjamin Lewis, Alexander Campbell, Warren Smith, Sardius Smith, George Richards, Mr. Napier, Mr. Harmer, Mr. Cox, Mr. Abbott, Mr. York, Wm. Merrick, (a boy 8 or 9 years old,) and three or four others, whose names I do not recollect, as they were strangers to me.
Among the wounded who recovered were Isaac Laney, Nathan K. Knight, Mr. Yokum, two brothers by the name of Myers, Tarlton Lewis, Mr. Honn, and several others. Miss Mary Stedwell while fleeing was shot through the hand, and fainting, fell over a log, into which they shot upwards of twenty balls.
To finish their work of destruction this band of murderers composed of men from Daviess, Livingston, Ray, Carroll and Chariton counties, led by some of the principal men of that section of the upper country, (among whom I am informed were Mr. Ashby from Chariton, member of the state legislature, Col. Jennings of Livingston County, Thomas O. Bryon, Clerk of Livingston co., Mr. Whitney, Dr. Randall, and many others,) proceeded to rob the houses, wagons and tents, of bedding and clothing, drove off horses and wagons, leaving widows and orphans destitute of the necessaries of life, and even stripped the clothing from the bodies of the slain!
According to their own account, they fired seven rounds in this awful butchery, making upwards of sixteen hundred shots at a little company of men, about thirty in number.
I hereby certify the above to be a true statement of facts according to the best of my knowledge.
STATE OF ILLINOIS,
COUNTY OF ADAMS
I hereby certify that Joseph Young this day came before me and made oath in due form of law that the statements contained in the foregoing sheets are true according to the best of his knowledge and belief. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the Seal of the Circuit Court at Quincy this fourth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine.
C. M. WOODS,
Clerk Circuit Court Adams Co. Ill.
A younger brother of the boy here killed, aged eight, was shot through the hip. The little fellow himself states, that seeing his father and brother both killed, he thought they would shoot him again if he stirred, and so feigned himself dead, and lay perfectly still, till he heard his mother call him after dark.
It must be constantly recollected, that the Mormons in Caldwell County considered themselves, as they really were, the regular state militia, acting under the command of county officers and by the advice of Generals Doniphan and Parks, for the purpose of putting down a mob. They had never opposed or thought of opposing the authorities of the state, or of any county. They had in every instance agreed to keep the peace against lawless violence, as citizens, not as Mormons. They were naturally surprised when the state executive, by whom their officers were commissioned, sent other militia officers to command their surrender. It was not against the state, but for the state, not against Law, but to maintain Law, that they had armed. “The Mormon War,” of which so much has been said, was then simply and truly an attempt to put down the very mob, against whom the militia of other counties has been called out; and Gov. Boggs might with equal justice have arrested any other militia officers as these officers of the Mormon militia. This two-fold relation of the Mormons,-first, of militia to preserve order under state authority, and second, of friends to those whom they were called to defend, must be carefully born in mind. And now let a few facts be detailed of the surrender to Gen. Lucas.
The first knowledge the Mormons of Far West and Caldwell received that the other militia of the state were called out against them, was the appearance of 3000 armed men within half a mile of their town. Ignorant of whom these people might be and of what their purposes were, the Mormons sent out a flag of truce to inquire the cause of their appearance. The answer returned was, that they wanted three individuals named, who were then in Far West, two of which were not members of the church, and that for the Mormons themselves they intended to exterminate them, or drive them from the state. It was still, however, not stated who they were, nor was any authority shown under which they were acting. In this state of ignorance and uncertainty the Mormons passed the night and the following day, naturally supposing that this was another mob, and keeping up a guard therefore against surprisal. These suspicions were confirmed by the facts, that the party under Gilliam had been seen to join them, and that various Mormons had been taken prisoners, and especially by the cruel murder of Mr. Carey. The next day after the arrival of these troops, Joseph Smith Jr., Lyman Wight, Sidney Rigdon and Parley P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin and Alexander McRae, were by the deceit and stratagem of Col. George M. Hinkle, himself commander of the Mormons, betrayed and made prisoners. It was at this time that the Mormons first received information of the governor’s order, and immediately held consultation to know what should be done. They determined at once and without hesitation to follow the rule, they had always as good citizens observed, of obeying the authorities of the state, and resolved to surrender, although but a few hours previous, supposing the men thus collected to be a mob, they had sworn to stand by each other till death, and never yield to lawless force. As soon as it was known that these troops were a body lawfully acting under the executive order, there was but one desire, and that was to give themselves up. Meanwhile a court martial was held in Gen. Lucas’ camp, for the trial of the prisoners already alluded to, who were all condemned to be shot the next morning at 8 o’clock. The execution of this sentence was prevented by the remonstrance of Gen. Doniphan against such cold blooded murder, and by his threats of withdrawing with his troops. Gen. Atchison, it should be stated, had in great indignation withdrawn from the army while at Richmond, as soon as the Gov’s. exterminating order had been received.
Hinkle’s treachery will be easily understood. Fearing himself a conflict, he had entered into treaty with the officers of the troops, and had promised to deliver up the leading Mormons. This he did as stated in Lyman Wight’s memorial, by fraudulently putting them in the enemy’s power, under pretence of holding a conference. The treaty which he entered into, was not fully understood in the other particulars. But the Mormons had but one course, and that was to surrender; this they did on the following morning. They were marched into a hollow square under Major Bronson, Hinkle having withdrawn himself, and there grounding their arms, they yielded themselves prisoners of war.
Copy of a Military Order by the Governor of Missouri
HEAD QUARTERS, MILITIA, }City of Jefferson, Oct. 27, 1838.
Sir:-Since the order of the morning to you, directing you to cause four hundred mounted men to be raised within your division, I have received by Amos Rees, Esq. and Wiley E. Williams Esq., one of my aids, information of the most appalling character, which changes the whole face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude of an open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made open war upon the people of this state. Your orders are, therefore, to hasten your operations and endeavor to reach Richmond, in Ray County, with all possible speed. The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the state, if necessary, for the public good. Their outrages are beyond all description. If you can increase your force, you are authorized to do so to any extent you may think necessary. I have just issued orders to Maj. Gen. Wallock, of Marion County, to raise 500 men and march them to the northern part of Daviess, and there unite with Gen. Doniphan, of Clay, who has been ordered with 500 men to proceed to the same point, for the purpose of intercepting the retreat of the Mormons to the North. They have been directed to communicate with you by express. You can also communicate with them if you find it necessary. Instead, therefore, of proceeding, as at first directed, to reinstate the citizens of Daviess in their homes, you will proceed immediately to Richmond, and there operate against the Mormons. Brig. Gen. Parks, of Ray, has been ordered to have four hundred men of his brigade in readiness to join you at Richmond. The whole force will be placed under your command.
L. W. BOGGS, Gov. And Command-in-chief.
To Gen. Clark.
The following address, was delivered at Far West, by Maj. Gen. Clark, to the Mormons, after they had surrendered their arms, and themselves prisoners of war:
“Gentlemen-You whose names are not attached to this list of names, will now have the privilege of going to your fields to obtain corn for your families, wood, &c. Those that are now taken, will go from thence to prison-be tried, and receive the due demerit of their crimes-but you are now at liberty, all but such as charges may be hereafter preferred against. It now devolves upon you to fulfill the treaty that you have entered into, the leading items of which I now lay before you. The first of these you have already complied with, which is, that you deliver up your leading men to be tried according to law. Second, that you deliver up your arms-this has been attended to. The third is, that you sign over your properties to defray the expenses of the war-this you have also done. Another thing remains for you to comply with, that is that you leave the state forthwith, and whatever your feelings concerning this affair-whatever your innocence, it is nothing to me. Gen. Lucas, who is equal in authority with me, has made this treaty with you. I am determined to see it executed. The orders of the governor to me, were, that you should be exterminated, and not allowed to continue in the state, and had your leader not been given up and the treaty complied with before this, you and your families would have been destroyed, and your houses in ashes.
There is a discretionary power vested in my hands which I shall try to exercise for a season.-I did not say that you shall go now, but you must not think of staying here another season or of putting in crops; for the moment you do, the citizens will be upon you. I am determined to see the governor’s message fulfilled, but shall not come upon you immediately-do not think that I shall act as I have done any more-but if I have to come again, because the treaty which you have made here shall be broken, you need not expect any mercy, but extermination-for I am determined the governor’s order shall be executed. As for your leaders, do not once think-do not imagine for a moment-do not let it enter your mind, that they will be delivered, or that you will see their faces again, for their fate is fixed, their die is cast-their doom is sealed.
I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently intelligent men found in the situation that you are;-and, oh! that I could invoke the spirit of the unknown God to rest upon you, and deliver you from that awful chain of superstition, and liberate you from those fetters of fanaticism with which you are bound. I would advise you to scatter abroad and never again organize with Bishops, Presidents, &c., lest you excite the jealousies of the people, and subject yourselves to the same calamities that have now come upon you. You have always been the aggressors-you have brought upon yourselves these difficulties by being disaffected, and not being subject to rule -and my advice is that you become as other citizens, lest by a recurrence of these events you bring upon yourselves irretrievable ruin.
Copy of Mittimus sent by Judge King with Joseph Smith Jr. and others, to the keeper of Liberty Jail, in Clay County, Missouri.
STATE OF MISSOURI,
To the keeper of the Jail of Clay County, greeting.
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section A
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section B
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section C
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section D
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section E
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section G
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section H
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section I
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section J
- Facts Relative to the Expulsion Section K